One factor in Chile’s exceptionalism that has not yet been mentioned is the profound Basque influence starting in the eighteen century. Arnold J. Bauer in Chilean Rural Society (Cambridge University Press, 1975) writes:
Between 1701 and 1810, some 24,000 immigrants arrived in Chile from Spain [about doubling the number of Spaniards] and forty-five percent of these came from Navarre [a province just east of the Basque Country whose people share many Basque traditions] and the Basque provinces. Everyone agrees on the extraordinary impact these … groups had, including [the renowned Basque writer] Miguel de Unamuno who called Chile along with the Jesuit order the two great creations of the Basque people. Their road to economic success and social prominence ran from commerce to the countryside to office…Luis Thayer Ojeda, one of the most accomplished of many Chilean genealogists, thought that ‘three-fourths of the distinguished personages of nineteenth- century Chile were of Basque descent. 
The Basques have a rich tradition of entrepreneurship and cooperation that has expressed itself in a variety of settings, including Boise, Idaho. They were the most successful farmers and administrators in what would become Venezuela, according to the book Viaje a la Parte Oriental de la Tierra Firme en la América Meridional by French writer François Depons, published in 1806.