James R. Flynn is emeritus professor of political studies at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand and author, most recently, of What is Intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect (Cambridge University Press, 2007). Flynn is best known for his discovery of the Flynn effect, the continued year-on-year rise of IQ scores in all parts of the world. The author of six books, Flynn’s research combines political and moral philosophy with psychology to clarify problems such as justifying humane ideals and whether it makes sense to rank races and classes by merit. Professor Flynn has been profiled in Scientific American and ran for the New Zealand Parliament in 1993 and 1996 as Alliance candidate for Dunedin North. Research Interests: Humane ideals and ideological debate; classics of political philosophy; race, class and IQ.